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Safford1977

Parallel pathway, dead-end pore model that accounts for sequestration or binding of calcium within heart muscle sheet. From Safford and Bassingthwaighte, 1977. Also contains an implementation of Suenson et al. 1974 diffusion model to validate new model with sucrose data.

Model number: 0202

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Description

  ABSTRACT: Rates of diffusion through the extracellular space of thin sheets of myocardium
from the right ventricular outflow tract of kittens were estimated at 23C
for [45Ca(2+)] and an inert reference tracer, [14C]sucrose. The myocardial sheets were
mounted in an Ussing chamber and equilibrated with Tyrode solution with varied
calcium concentrations, Ca0. The tracers were added to one side and their concentrations
on the other side measured at 5-15-min intervals for 6 h. The apparent
tracer diffusion coefficient for sucrose was 1.11 0.06 x 10^-6 cm^2*s^-1 (mean t
SEM, n = 74), 22% of the free diffusion coefficient; the lag time before reaching a
steady state provided estimates of the intratissue volume of distribution or diffusion
space of 0.41 +- 0.15 ml/ml tissue (n = 74), a value compatible with expectations for
extracellular fluid space. Over the range of Ca0 from 0.02 to 9.0 mM, the intratissue
apparent diffusion coefficient for Ca, Dca, averaged 1.65 0.10 x 10^-6cm^2*s^-1, n =
74, which is 21% of the free D0ca, and was not influenced by Ca0. Because transsarcolemmal
Ca permeation is slow, Dca is the diffusion coefficient in the extracellular
region. The paired ratios Dca/D. averaged 1.32 +- 0.05 (n = 67) for all
levels of Ca0 but at physiologic or higher Ca0 averaged 1.45 +- 0.07 (n = 39), close
to the ratio of free diffusion coefficients, 1.53. Equations distinguishing transient
from steady state diffusion were fitted to the data, showing that the apparent distribution
volume of "binding sites" external to the diffusion pathway diminished at higher
Cao in a fashion suggesting that at least two different Ca(2+) binding sites were
present.

  There are two diffusion models presented here: the dead-end pore model ('saff77_Binding') 
to account for Ca binding, and one based on Suenson et al. 1974 ('saff77_MPcrank', based on Crank 1956) 
that is used to model sucrose diffusion across the myocardium. The dead-end pore model contains 
the single and multi-path solutions using the same parameters so that it is easy to see the 
effect of heterogeneous tissue on diffusion across tissue.

Safford et al. 1977 paper (pdf)

Equations

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References

 (Primary) Safford RE, Bassingthwaighte JB, Calcium diffusion in transient and steady states in muscle, 
 Biophysical Journal, 20(1), Oct 1977, 113-136, ISSN 0006-3495

 ALDRICH BI. The effects of the hyaluronic acid complex on the distribution of ions. 
 Biochem J. 1958 Oct;70(2):236–244.  

 Beeler GW, Jr, Reuter H. Membrane calcium current in ventricular myocardial fibres. 
 J Physiol. 1970 Mar;207(1):191–209.  

 Birks RI, Davey DF. Osmotic responses demonstrating the extracellular character of the 
 sarcoplasmic reticulum. J Physiol. 1969 May;202(1):171–188.  

 BLINKS JR. INFLUENCE OF OSMOTIC STRENGTH ON CROSS-SECTION AND VOLUME OF ISOLATED SINGLE 
 MUSCLE FIBRES. J Physiol. 1965 Mar;177:42–57.  

 Caillé JP, Hinke JA. Evidence for Na sequestration in muscle from Na diffusion measurements. 
 Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 1972 Mar;50(3):228–237. 

 Crank J. The Mathematics of Diffusion. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1956.

 Crank J. The Mathematics of Diffusion, 2nd edition. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1975.

 ENGEL MB, JOSEPH NR, CATCHPOLE HR. Homeostasis of connective tissues. I. Calcium-sodium equilibrium. 
 AMA Arch Pathol. 1954 Jul;58(1):26–39. 

 ENGEL MB, JOSEPH NR, LASKINDM, CATCHPOLE HR. Binding of anions by connective tissue: dermis 
 and cartilage. Am J Physiol. 1961 Oct;201:621–627. 

 Fawcett DW, McNutt NS. The ultrastructure of the cat myocardium. I. Ventricular papillary muscle. 
 J Cell Biol. 1969 Jul;42(1):1–45.  

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 GINZBURG BZ, KATCHALSKY A. THE FRICTIONAL COEFFICIENTS OF THE FLOWS OF NON-ELECTROLYTES THROUGH 
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 Haljamäe H, Linde A, Amundson B. Comparative analyses of capsular fluid and interstitial fluid. 
 Am J Physiol. 1974 Nov;227(5):1199–1205. 

 HODGKIN AL, KEYNES RD. The mobility and diffusion coefficient of potassium in giant axons from Sepia. 
 J Physiol. 1953 Mar;119(4):513–528.  

 JOSEPH NR, ENGEL MB, CATCHPOLE HR. Homeostasis of connective tissues. II. Potassium-sodium equilibrium. 
 AMA Arch Pathol. 1954 Jul;58(1):40–58. 

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 Connective tissues. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1959 Sep;84:224–242. 

 Kushmerick MJ, Podolsky RJ. Ionic mobility in muscle cells. Science. 1969 Dec 5;166(3910):1297–1298. 

 Langer GA, Frank JS. Lanthanum in heart cell culture. Effect on calcium exchange correlated with 
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 J Gen Physiol. 1964 Jul;47:1129–1140.  

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 ventriculocisternal perfusion. Am J Physiol. 1975 Oct;229(4):877–884. 

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 external ion composition. J Physiol. 1968 Mar;195(2):451–470.  

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 Am J Physiol. 1964 May;206:985–991. 

 Shaw M. Interpretation of osmotic pressure in solutions of one and two nondiffusible components. 
 Biophys J. 1976 Jan;16(1):43–57.  

 Suenson M, Richmond DR, Bassingthwaighte JB. Diffusion of sucrose, sodium, and water in 
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Related Models

Key Terms

tissue diffusion, plane sheet, binding, dead-end pore, ventricular myocardium, calcium, sucrose, tutorial, heterogeneous transport, Data, Publication, PMID901900, PMCID: PMC1473340

Model History

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Posted by: BEJ

Acknowledgements

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The National Simulation Resource, Director J. B. Bassingthwaighte, Department of Bioengineering, University of Washington, Seattle WA 98195-5061.

[This page was last modified 02Nov16, 2:41 pm.]

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